Senegal at a glance

Senegal is located at the westernmost tip of the African continent in the Atlantic Ocean, at the confluence of Europe, Africa and the Americas, and at a crossroads of major sea and air routes.


With an area of 196,722 km2. The neighbouring countries are: Mauritania, Mali, Guinea and Guinea Bissau, Gambia. Its 700 km coastline opens onto the Atlantic Ocean.

Dakar (550 km2), the capital, is a peninsula located in the far west.

Relief, hydrography

Flat country with sandy soils not exceeding 130 m altitude except on the south-eastern border towards Guinea.

Three rivers cross the country from East to West: Senegal (1700 km) in the North, Gambia (750 km) and Casamance (300 km) in the South.

Climate, vegetation

Dry tropical climate characterized by two seasons: a dry season from November to June and a rainy season from July to October.

Three types of vegetation: forest in the south, savannah in the center and steppe in the north.


  • 2015 estimate: 14,354,690
  • Density 8/km2
  • Area 196,712 km2


Political organization

The Republic of Senegal is secular, democratic and social. It ensures equality before the law of all citizens, without distinction as to origin, ethnicity, sex or religion.

The official language of the Republic of Senegal is French. The national languages are Diola, Malinké, Pular, Serer, Soninke, Wolof and any other national language that will be codified.

Pluralist presidential system: the President of the Republic is elected by universal suffrage and for five years.

Parliament: The representative assemblies of the Republic of Senegal shall be known as the National Assembly. Their members bear the titles of deputies to the National Assembly.

The National Assembly is composed of 150 deputies elected by universal suffrage.

Administrative organization

Fourteen regions whose capitals are the main cities: Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kédougou, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint Louis, Sédhiou, Tambacounda, Thiès, Ziguinchor.