A glance of Senegal

Senegal in brief

Senegal is located at the westernmost tip of the African continent in the Atlantic Ocean, at the confluence of Europe, Africa and the Americas, and at a crossroads of major maritime and air routes.


Covering an area of 196,722 km2, the neighboring countries of Senegal are Mauritania, Mali, Guinea and Guinea Bissau, Gambia. Its 700 km coastline opens onto the Atlantic Ocean.

The capital of Senegal, Dakar (550 km2) is a peninsula located in the far west of the country.

Relief, hydrography

Senegal is a flat country with sandy soils not exceeding 130 m in altitude except at the south-eastern border towards Guinea.


Three rivers cross the country from East to West:

  • Senegal river (1700 km) in the North,
  • Gambia river (750 km),
  • Casamance river (300 km) in the South

Climate, vegetation

Dry tropical climate characterized by two seasons: a dry season from November to June and a rainy season from July to October.


Three types of vegetation can be found in Senegal:

  • Forest in the South,
  • Savannah in the center and
  • Steppe in the north


  • 2021 estimate: 17, 196, 308
  • Area 196,712 Km2
  • Density 68.7/km2

political organization

The Republic of Senegal is secular, democratic and social. It ensures equality before the law for all citizens, without distinction of origin, ethnicity, sex or religion.


Senegal is a multilingual country, 36 languages have been identified by ethnologist, Wolof being the most spoken language. The official language is French. The national languages are Diola, Malinké, Pular, Sérère, Soninké, Wolof and any other national language that will be codified.


Pluralist presidential system: the President of the Republic is elected by universal suffrage and for five years.


The Parliament: The representative assemblies of the Republic of Senegal are called the National Assembly. Their members bear the titles of deputies to the National Assembly.


The National Assembly is made up of 150 deputies elected by universal suffrage.

Administrative organisation

Fourteen regions whose capitals are the main cities: Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kédougou, Kaolack, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint Louis, Sédhiou, Tambacounda, Thiès, Ziguinchor.